Over the years since the launch of the first of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs) in 1978, the data from these instruments have come to be used for a very wide range of non-meteorological applications. In this book, the author describes the satellite system, the instrument itself, the control of the spacecraft and the data- recovery arrangements. The book also covers various aspects of the processing of the data to extract useful environmental information. The applications of the data to marine problems, based primarily on the study of sea-surface temperatures from the thermal-infrared channels of the instrument, are considered, as well as the study of vegetation and a whole variety of other land-based and hydrological applications.
the wave theory foundations of today's radio occultation techniques<br> <br> Forty years ago, the premier radio occultation problem was how to profile the atmosphere and radius of Mars using signals sent by the Mariner 4 spacecraft. Researchers then could rely on ray theory-based techniques for accurate analysis of the thin, uniform Martian atmosphere. Today's radio occultation challenges mostly involve communications platforms-and related data, instrument systems, and applications-in the Earth's own atmosphere. To deal with the density and complexity of this multilayered medium, an analytical framework that goes beyond ray theory is needed.<br> <br> Setting the cutting edge for the field, Radio Occultations Using Earth Satellites: A Wave Theory Treatment develops a purely wave-theoretic approach to occultation analysis. This approach yields more nuanced results than either ray or hybrid (ray/wave) methodologies offer, and proves suitable for the many variables at work in today's problems.<br> <br> This groundbreaking text provides:<br> * An introduction to the general theory of radio occultations<br> * Development of ray theory and scalar diffraction treatments of radio propagation processes<br> * Development of a wave theoretic treatment of the above wave propagation processes<br> * The correspondence between wave and ray theories<br> * A discussion of how to use a wave-theoretic approach to infer the refractive properties of the propagation medium from a time series set of observations of the propagated wave's phase and amplitude<br> <br> A comprehensive resource that clearly defines the latest topics and methodologies, Radio Occultations Using Earth Satellites is a must-have text for engineers, scientists, students, and managers in satellites communications, navigation, deep space and planetary exploration, aerospace, atmospheric science, physics, and engineering.<br> <br> The Deep Space Communications and Navigation Series is authored by scientists and engineers with extensive experience in astronautics, communications, and related fields. It lays the foundation for innovation in the areas of deep space navigation and communications by disseminating state-of-the-art knowledge in key technologies.
The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is the next-generation multispectral imaging instrument to fly on US operational, polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. VIIRS will gather data across 22 spectral bands and be used to create products for a variety of applications including weather forecasting and climate change studies. VIIRS consolidates the best features of heritage instruments, including near-constant resolution and nighttime visible imagery. Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite: A New Operational Cloud Imager provides the first comprehensive guide on the design and exploitation of cloud data collected by the VIIRS.
Riccardo Giacconi Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics The meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on January 28- 30, 1980, marks the coming of age of X-ray astronomy. In the 18 years since the discovery of the first extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-l, the field has experienced an extremely rapid instrumentation development culminating with the launch on November 13, 1978 of the Einstein Ob servatory (HEAO-2) which first introduced the use of high resolution imaging telescopes to the study of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. The Einstein Observatory instruments can detect sources as faint as 10-7 Sco X-lor about 17 magnitudes fainter. The technological developments in the field have been paralleled by a host of new discoveries: in the early 1960's the detection of 9 "X-ray stars", objects 10 times more luminous in X-rays than the Sun and among the brightest stellar objects at all wavelengths; in the late 1960's and early 1970's the discovery of the nature of such systems which were identified as collapsed stars (neutron stars and black holes) in mass exchange binary systems, and the detection of the first few extragalactic sources.
Radio frequencies have become a basic resource for the development of the information society. In fact, radio waves are a mandatory vehicle in order to carry the message to customers and a truly worldwide communication needs their properties. Given the market demands for more and more frequencies, means have to be found to share this limited resource most effectively and to continuously improve its efficiency. Radio spectrum management is thus a major objective for our modern world. <p> This book describes the current tools for spectrum management with their fundamental technical and legal basis. It outlines the global evolution of radio services in their different application domains and introduces the actors who contribute to the collective management of the spectrum. It also discusses the main questions these actors have to deal with and answer in order to design for the future.